The lack of one or more teeth interferes with chewing and disturbs aesthetics. Teeth destroyed by caries or fracture also violate the chewing function.
After the loss of even one tooth, a substitute shall be placed by all means. This is commonly carried-out using bridges, and the more state-of-the-art way is using implants. In most cases, teeth destroyed to a greater degree (for example, to remaining roots) may be restored by being built-up with posts, post-and-core build-ups and crowns. Bridges and crowns may be fabricated from resin, PFM, zirconia or metal-free ceramics. Resins are used only for temporary bridges and crowns. Porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations are robust and with satisfactory aesthetics. Zirconia is a comparatively new material, robust, aesthetic and delicate to the gums. Do not wait for more than two months after a tooth extraction so as to take care of your smile!


Bridges are prosthetic constructions used for treatment in case of single tooth missing. They can be fabricated only if teeth are available on both sides of the missing tooth. Adjacent teeth are prepared in a cone-shape abatments and the bridge, which is fabricated in a laboratory, is fixed with cement over the prepared teeth. Bridges may be fabricated from different materials depending on the patient needs and demands. Commonly, they are from PFM, zirconia or resin.



Crowns are prosthetic constructions, fabricated in a custom manner by a dental technician, for covering single teeth and restoring their natural shape. They are used for treatment of fractured teeth, teeth which are deeply and largely destroyed by a carious decay and upon which filling is impossible to be placed, as well as devitalized teeth /with their nerves removed/.
They protect tooth tissues from wearing and destruction.
They may be fabricated from different materials depending on the patient needs and demands. Commonly, they are from PFM, zirconia or resin.



Dentures are removable teeth. They may be fabricated from different types of resin.

“Partial” are those dentures which replace missing teeth of a patient, but in cases when natural teeth are also present in the mouth. Partial dentures are retained to the other teeth in the mouth by means of metal or resin clasps.

“Total” are those dentures which restore all patient’s teeth, i.e., when there are no natural teeth left in the mouth. Total dentures are retained by creating vacuum with the gums /for upper dentures/ or by gravity /for lower prostheses/. Often, these retaining forces are not sufficient and patients are forced to use denture adhesives daily.

Model cast metal-framework dentures with attachments are considered obsolete treatment methods and are used very rarely since implantology replaces them entirely and is a more sparing option for the available teeth.